Work Package 3


Development of new insoles for diabetic patients using thermal information.

Although the behaviour of the soft tissues of sole of the foot has been studied in the prevention of ulceration, there has not been a systematic approach to relieve the symptoms associated with diabetic foot hyperthermia using insoles.

We have developed insole concepts that are based on a modified dimple insole.

Basic insoles, DIMPLE and DIMPLE-M insoles.

DIMPLE insole texture

DIMPLE insole

The DIMPLE insole has is designed with a 1 mm high dimple structure . The dimples have a diameter of 2 mm.

DIMPLE-M insole

The modified dimpole insole, has a diameter of 1 mm each element has 3 mm height.

DIMPLE-M insole texture

Example of plantar temperature measurement

Thermal imaging and plantar pressure measurements

Foot pressure measurements were taken during walking and temperatures were assessed before and after wearing all three insoles after walking for the same distance and following the same course. The temperature was calculated as the difference between the temperature immediately after using the sole compared to the base temperature before using the sole. The results showed that the modified dimple insoles can reduce plantar temperature by 1.5°C to 1.7°C, compared to the regular sole. The insoles also can reduced plantar pressure by 5.5% and 6.5%, compared to the regular sole.

Below you will find the scientific publications of this work. And can be download in "Database".



[1] Allan D, Vilcahuaman L, Arbanil H, Naemi R.  The association between plantar skin microcirculation and the indicators of peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes. Presented in the 16th Scientific Meeting of Diabetic Foot Study Group (European Association for Study of Diabetes), Bratislava, Slovakia, 18-20 September 2020 – Presented Online

[2] Naemi R (2022). Mechanics of the Diabetic Foot. Presented at the Primary Care and Public Health Conference, 11-12 May 2022, NEC Birmingham

[3] Naemi R (2020) Biomechanics of the Foot in Diabetes. Presented at the Emerging Technologies in Neuroscience and Rehabilitation - Supporting and protecting the elderly in POST COVID-19 event, held at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá - Colombia from June 30th to July 4th 2020.

[4] Naemi R (2020) The application of soft tissue biomechanics in assessing the risk of diabetic foot ulceration. Presented to Sciences and Engineering at Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, Lima, Peru, 12 th Feb 2020

[5] Naemi R (2019). Diabetic Foot Complications. Are they ‘solely’ biomechanical? Professorial Inaugural Lecture, Presented at Staffordshire University Science Centre, 21 November 2019.